Gemstone List D to G

Gemstones D-G
Named after M.E. Dumortier, a French scientist.

Al7(BO3)(SiO4)3O3      hardness 7      specific gravity 3.28

Color: usually violet and blue from titanium, can also be reddish brown, red or pinkish red
Transparent to translucent

Called dumortierite quartz when inter grown with rock crystal.

Mined in Nevada, France, Madagascar, Norway, Sri Lanka, Canada, Poland, Namibia, Italy, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa, Japan


Name from the Greek word smaragdos, and was given to several green stones.

Be3Al2Si6O18      hardness 7 1/2 – 8      specific gravity 2.6-3.0

Color: green

Mined in Columbia, Europe, India, Russia
In Egypt, it was mined as early as 1300 B.C. The area became known as Cleopatra’s Mines after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

Ancient lore:
Egyptian symbol of fertility and life
Aztec symbol of seasonal renewal
Europe: prevent epilepsy, assist women in child birth, protect the chastity of the wearer, good for eye sight, the enemy of sexual passion.
There was a story that in the 13th century, when King Bela of Hungary embraced his wife, his emerald broke into 3 pieces.


Name from the Latin word fluere meaning to flow. It melts easily when used for refining metals.

CaF2      hardness 4      specific gravity 3.18

Color: white, yellow, blue, pink, green, purple, black, often more than one color in a stone.

Blue John is a name given in England to a purple and yellow banded variety.

Mined in Canada, USA, South Africa, Thailand, Peru, Mexico, China, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Norway, Germany.
At the beginning of the 18th century, miners accidentally found old Roman mines in England.

Used for carvings in ancient Egypt and China.

Ancient healing: cured kidney disease


a variety of muscovite

K(Cr, Al)2(AlSi)3O10(OH,F)2      hardness 2 1/2      specific gravity 2.8-2.9

Color: green from chromium
Transparent to opaque

Mined in New Hampshire, Canada, Russia

Fuchsite Ruby contains inclusions of ruby

There are 15 varieties of garnet. Not all are included here.


Name from Greek for fire and to appear

Mg3Al2(SiO4)3      hardness 7 1/4      specific gravity 3.6-3.7

Color: blood red from iron and chromium, usually no visible inclusions
Swiss and South African is lighter red than Bohemian
Transparent to translucent

Mined in Arizona, South Africa, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Myanmar, Scotland, Switzerland, Tanzania

Named for the former Alabanda, Turkey

Fe3Al2(SiO4)3      hardness 7-7 1/2      specific gravity 4.3

Color: dark red to black
almost opaque

Most common variety of garnet, used for Bohemian jewelry in the 19th century.

Mined world wide.

Ancient healing: cured melancholy and warmed the heart

Ca3Al2(SiO4)3      hardness 6 1/2 -7      specific gravity 3.7

Color: orange brown from manganese and iron
Called cinnamon stone if from Madagascar.

Mined in Sri Lanka, Brazil, Canada, Russia, Maine, California, New Hampshire.

PINK GROSSULAR (same chemical composition)
color caused by iron impurities
Mined in Mexico and South Africa

GREEN GROSSULAR (same chemical composition)
Two varieties:
Tsavorite transparent green found in Kenya
Massive green grossular resembles jade, may have black specks of magnetite, found in Africa

Named for Spessart, Bavaria, Germany

Mn3Al2(SiO4)3      hardness 7      specific gravity 4.16

Color: pure is bright orange, red from iron, Pure is rare, usually mixed with almandine.

Mined in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Brazil, Sweden, Australia, Myanmar, Virginia, Montana

ANDRADITE GARNET Garnet Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3 hardness 6 1/2 specific gravity 3.85
Demantoid – emerald green color from chromium with fine inclusions of asbestos. from Russia

TAPAZOLITE – pale to dark yellow found in the Swiss and Italian Alps

MELANITE – dark red to black from France, Elba, and Italy

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Posted By Handmade Beaded Jewelry Primary Jewelry Designer

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